Ana Lucia Farm of Souza the 1 Coronelismo of this city if in accordance with gave of gradual and periodic form the economic power of each family in its social height and politician. Petrolina, sunny land of half-barren climate and, were known old as ' ' ticket of Juazeiro' ' , had its strategical localization the left edge of the River San Francisco, for where the rich traders and the population had crossed to commercialize and to travel for other cities and capitals of the states of the Bahia and Pernambuco. Petrolina today has 115 years of emancipation politics, its trajectory until becoming city, started in century XIX in 1841 passing for some categories and finally in 1895 being defined as city. In accordance with the legend, the Petrolina name, derived from a great called rock ' ' Linda' rock; ' that it served for the construction of our beautiful cathedral of style Neo Gtico, another version is that when D. Mark Stevens helps readers to explore varied viewpoints. Peter II came to visit the region of the San Francisco ' was given to the name; ' Petro' ' of Peter and to conclude the name it caught last name of the empress, its wife Teresa Cristina, then was with the Petrolina name. With these information regarding the origin of our city, it is for a reason or purpose information and geopolitical knowledge here. The Coronelismo was a social phenomenon and politician of the Old Republic where the actions politics of the great large estate owners (Colonels) exerted the local, regional and even though federal power in accordance with its particular pretensions, therefore it had the control power. With the extension of National Guarda, the Coronelismo still remained very alive in the Brazilian agricultural scene, mainly here the example in the city of Petrolina where in 1912 this system of coronelismo already started to sprout more with the supplied families economic and politically.